Diplomacy Then and Now: Prevention is Always Better Than Treatment

The Boutros Boutros-Ghali Memorial Lecture

New York, March 21, 2017 – Aid workers and healthcare providers working amidst the ravages of war understand all to well the crucial importance of stopping conflict through diplomacy and negotiation before it starts or escalates.

Perhaps no one advocated for preventive diplomacy more ardently than founding member of the Center for International Humanitarian Cooperation (CIHC) and former Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali. Yesterday, representatives of the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations (UNAOC) and CIHC joined together to commemorate the life and noble efforts of Mr. Boutros-Ghali.

At the event, Kevin M. Cahill, M.D., President of the CIHC and University Professor and Director of Fordham University’s Institute of International Humanitarian Affairs (IIHA), was part of a high-level panel together with H.E. Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser, High Representative for UNOAC and Diplomat-in-Residence at the IIHA, Ambassador Maged Abdelaziz, Under-Secretary-General and Special Advisor on Africa, Tomas Christensen, Chef de Cabinet of and Ambassador Amr Aboulatta, Permanent Representative of Egypt to the United Nations.

“Almost in the role of a public health professional, he opened his talk by noting that in matters of peace and security, as in medicine, prevention is self-evidently better than cure. It saves lives and money and it forestalls suffering,” said Dr. Cahill of Mr. Boutrous-Ghalis’ powerful address at the 1995 UN Conference.

Dr. Cahill served as Mr. Boutros-Ghali’s physician and personal advisor for many years, including during his time as UN Secretary-General. Mr. Boutros-Ghali was also a founding member of the CIHC in 1992, which is now celebrating its 25th year.

His approach to preventive diplomacy was guided by four elements: fact-finding, confidence building, early warning and preventive deployment.

“He described preventive diplomacy as ‘action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur’,” said Mr. Al-Nasser.

Mr. Boutros-Ghali’s landmark 1992 report, An Agenda for Peace, has become a guiding document for diplomats and UN representatives in their pursuit of sustainable social peace throughout the world..

“In our ever more dangerous world, in the throes of both inter- and intra-state conflicts, the need for a new approach in international relations, seems obvious. Preventive Diplomacy should deal with — and even direct — where a nation can move towards peace rather than replaying where it has been in endless wars. That surely was our intention in promoting this option, and neither Boutros nor I ever abandoned that dream,” concluded Dr. Cahill in his speech.

Twenty-five years later as the international community struggles to remedy and end dire conflicts and complex humanitarian crises in Iraq, South Sudan, Syria, Yemen, and beyond world leaders should be reminded of this call to action.

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Syrian Voices: Customs and Traditions in Humanitarian Crises

Monday, March 6, 2017 – As conflict wages on in Syria, nearby countries have opened their doors to millions of new people seeking refuge. In Lebanon, one in four people is a Syrian refugee. While Lebanon is the biggest host of the five million Syrian refugees globally, truly integrating their neighbors into society has proved challenging for the small country where economic strains and competition for scarce resources is ever increasing.

House of Peace (HOPe) in Syria is striving to understand and address the evolving relationships of displaced persons within refugee populations, amongst their host communities and with non-governmental organizations.

Their new report, Syrian Voices, aims to raise voices, analyze opinions and propose positive recommendations for advancing integration and social peacebuilding. HOPe conducted workshops with around 300 participants, most of whom were Syrian refugees living in Lebanon but also Palestinians and Lebanese host community members.

“The main impetus behind this paper is helping people concerned with the Syrian crisis to see things from the eyes of those who are suffering the most; to contribute in bringing people from different points of views closer by helping them overcoming their prejudices and self-evident beliefs,” said Elias Sadkni, Director of HOPe and International Diploma in Humanitarian Assistance 39 alumnus.

Restrictions to integration. A major finding of the report was the ways in which government policy and NGO modus-operandi surrounding refugee response in Lebanon have changed the ways in which Syrian communities relate each other and their hosts.

Strict residency and labor laws for Syrians in Lebanon have made securing employment particularly difficult for men. Women, however, are more easily able to find work opportunities in the informal labor market and through the support of vocational trainings and services provided by organizations.

Perhaps even more disconcerting was the effect that strict work restrictions had on fueling forced marriage or labor on children in the country. In 2016, some NGOs estimated between 60 and 70 percent of refugee children are working and Human Rights Watch reported that more than 250,000 Syrian children were out of school in Lebanon.

“Harsh regulations that prevent most refugees from maintaining legal residency or working are undermining Lebanon’s generous school enrollment policies…With 70 percent of Syrian families living below the poverty line in 2015, many cannot afford school-related costs like transportation and school supplies, or rely on their children to work,” said Human Rights Watch.

The Syrian Voices report reiterated this point adding that “participants felt Humanitarian and UN efforts are not prioritizing educational establishments for Syrian refugees; in addition to this issue, the majority of educational establishments in Lebanon refuse to accept Syrians.”

Blurring cultures. Despite the challenges that come with displacement, Syrian participants also expressed that social solidarity amongst their communities remained strong in exile. This solidarity at times extended into their relationships with their host communities, and in turn caused the lines between Syrian and Lebanese cultures to blur.

“Many participants felt that adapting to Lebanese culture is causing changes in the customs and traditions of Syrian refugees. Some expressed dismay at these changes, fear their permanency, and believe they have been a source of intra-communal tension, whilst others embrace them,” said the report.

Improved humanitarian intervention. Other focus groups with NGO representatives examined the complex role NGOs play in the Syrian crisis.

Representatives voiced concerns that “their presence at times has contributed to existing tensions or created new ones”, because they failed to partake in adequate contextual and cultural analyses before implementing projects. Others noted a lack of transparency between donors and the community.

Syria Voices ultimately concludes in a list of recommendations for the humanitarian community to improve their continuing intervention, suggesting that humanitarian organizations begin to truly address the root causes of suffering amongst Syrians in Lebanon by:

  • Ensuring and advocating for equal access to adult education, vocational training and employment opportunities for Syrian adults of both genders;
  • Developing mechanisms for effective child protection from exploitation;
  • Enhancing educational opportunities for children;
  • Truly engaging with Syrian and Lebanese communities to better understand conflict
  • Improving communication methods between agencies in order to learn from each other’s experiences and best practices; and
  • Promoting more positive and less stereotypically harmful narratives about Syrian refugees in Lebanese media.

Ultimately, HOPe believes this report can be a guiding resource for the humanitarian sector, one that encourages agencies to question and improve their increasingly important response to the Syrian crisis.

Syrian Voices is a research-initiated project aimed at spreading Syrian perspectives on issues of social peace. The goal of the paper is to inform the humanitarian community, allowing stakeholders to implement recommendations and best practices to help resolve conflict in Syria and surrounding areas.

Andrew Seger, IIHA Communications Intern

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IIHA Executive Director Named to Editorial Board of the Journal of International Humanitarian Action


New York, NY – March 6, 2017 – Brendan Cahill, Executive Director of Fordham University’s Institute of International Humanitarian Affairs has been named to the editorial board of the
Journal of International Humanitarian Action, a peer-review journal published by the Network on Humanitarian Action (NOHA).

The IIHA has partnered with NOHA for years, often providing education and academic support to their European-based students at Fordham University. Mr. Cahill is enthusiastic to deepen the Institute’s academic partnership with NOHA by championing this essential tool for a community of humanitarian academics.

The Journal is a wonderful initiative, and highlights the role academia can and must play in regards to humanitarian action. The Journal is a natural outlet for our scholars, and another axis point between academia and the humanitarian sector which will complement our International Humanitarian Affairs Book Series from Fordham University Press and our education programs.

As the IIHA focuses more on multilevel education together with research and publications, the Journal allows for greater interaction with a global network of scholars and practitioners. The Institute is growing because it remains constantly innovative, and seeks to remain relevant in the training of next generations of aid professionals,” said Mr. Cahill.

The IIHA looks forward to being an integral part of NOHA’s community of thought leaders by contributing to critical analysis and research that seeks to highlight contemporary challenges and ultimately improve humanitarian response around the world.

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Fighting Ebola with Information

What can be learned from the use of data, information, and digital technologies, such as mobile-based systems and internet connectivity, during the Ebola outbreak response in West Africa? What worked, what didn’t, and how can we apply these lessons to improve data and information flows in the future?

When the Ebola outbreak hit West Africa in late 2013, the world was caught unprepared. The consequence: over 30,000 Ebola cases, including more than 11,000 dead, and billions of dollars lost across the global system.
In response to the outbreak, USAID joined with communities, governments, and organizations to help affected countries control and, ultimately, contain the disease. As part of celebrating this hard won achievement, the international community must reflect, learn, and act based on this experience to help ensure such a tragedy is not repeated.

This report is a contribution to that end. It focuses on one aspect of the multi-faceted response: the role of data and digital technologies. Grounded in over 130 interviews and peer review, the report surfaces a breadth of experiences and perspectives, and concludes with practical recommendations that health, humanitarian, and development actors should take to be better prepared for the next crisis.

Information was critical to the fight against Ebola. Both for responders, who needed detailed and timely data about the disease’s spread, and for communities, who needed access to trusted and truthful information with which they could protect themselves and their loved ones. Yet, as we now know all too clearly, the technical, institutional, and human systems required to rapidly gather, transmit, analyze, use, and share Ebola-related data frequently were not sophisticated or robust enough to support the response in a timely manner.

We must strengthen these systems. This is essential both to keep pace with diseases that spread with the ferocity and velocity of Ebola, and to be more resilient in the face of future threats.

Although the focus of this report is the need for strengthened capacity, systems, and use of data, we recognize that this alone is not sufficient. Our hope is that these recommendations are incorporated alongside new knowledge of effective public health interventions, preparedness, and priorities for health system strengthening. Ultimately, our willingness to engage these challenges–on a daily basis and within public health systems–will be the best predicator of our success in stopping similar events.

Let us learn from and act upon these lessons to do justice both to those directly affected by Ebola, and to the efforts that ultimately brought to heel one of the most significant health and humanitarian crises of the early 21st century.

This is the Foreword from the new USAID report, Fighting Ebola with Information: Lessons from the Use of Data, Information, and Digital Technologies in the West African Ebola Outbreak Response. The report details key findings and recommendations about the collection, management, analysis, and use of data and information in countering the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014 and 2015. It reveals common sources of the confusing data picture, particularly in the early days of the response and examines the use of digital technologies to support data and information flows, considering both common barriers and insights from what worked. 

The report was co-authored by Institute of International Humanitarian Affairs Research Fellow Larissa Fast. Dr. Fast is a Fulbright-Schuman Research Scholar at Uppsala University’s Department of Peace and Conflict Research. Her current research compares the practices of data collection and use on the part of scholars and practitioners, focusing specifically on data collected by and about peacekeepers and aid workers. She is also the author of Aid in Danger: The Promise and Perils of Humanitarian Action.

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New York City stands in solidarity with refugees and immigrants

New Yorkers have been standing in solidarity with immigrants and refugees from across the globe. In 2016, 40,000 individuals applied for asylum in New York City, as compared to 283 refugees who were resettled in the city. New IIHA intern and Humanitarian Studies student, Andrew Seger, captured some of these moments throughout the city.

 

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Tens of thousands of New Yorkers met at JFK International Airport on January 28th, and gathered again in Battery Park on the 29th. They came from all over to show support for refugees and immigrants.

 

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They joined in chants like, “Say it loud, say it clear: refugees are welcome here!,” and “Love, no hate! That’s what makes America great!”

 

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Many called to mind America’s history as a country shaped immigrants. Many quoted “The New Colossus,” the poem inscribed at the bottom of the Statue of Liberty that says, “Give me your tired, your poor, / Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, / The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.”

 

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Fordham University student Neil Joyce, FCRH ’19, joined those in Battery Park.
“I believe that morally and constitutionally, we have a duty to allow these people into our country. They have a right to enter this country and pursue their dreams,” Joyce said.

 

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Senators Chuck Schumer (NY) and Cory Booker (NJ), along with Mayor Bill de Blasio (NYC) and many other elected officials gave speeches in Battery Park.
“We cannot just luxuriate in our freedoms and our liberties; we must earn them by fighting to expand them to all citizens and all people,” Senator Booker said.

 

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Even many children, on the backs of parents and in strollers, held up colorful signs at the rallies.

 

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The overwhelming support continued on February 2nd, when the Yemeni American Community organized a rally in Brooklyn. The Community says near 1,000 Yemeni business owners closed their businesses early to show support for Yemenis at home and abroad.

 

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Adnan Alshabbi, owner of Golden Deli in Washington Heights, closed the doors to his bodega for the first time in 25 years. He stood in solidarity with Yemeni’s across the world, including his family members who still live in Yemen.

 

Photo credit: Andrew Seger, IIHA Communications Intern

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by | February 9, 2017 · 10:36 am

IIHA stands in solidarity with refugees

As humanitarian disasters rise in scale and severity around the world, an unprecedented number of people have become forcibly displaced from their homes. As humanitarians, we recognize that our shared responsibility to the plight of  refugees and immigrants does not end in camps or at the onset of disaster, but rather extends into our own communities and with our own neighbors. Today, more than ever, we are presented with this call to bear witness.

The Institute of International Humanitarian Affairs and the Center for International Humanitarian Cooperation have a long standing tradition of training men and women around the world to effectively participate in answering this challenge.  Our educational approach has been, for twenty years, remarkably consistent: by learning from and knowing one another, we become better humanitarian professionals. Consequently, we are able to provide aid to those affected by crises with intelligence, flexibility, and dignity.  That celebration of other cultures and viewpoints has been a hallmark of every course we offer – whether to humanitarian professionals or undergraduate students.

Grounded in values of social justice and inclusivity, we are in full solidarity with our students and alumni from all around the world as well as the millions of refugees and migrants whom they serve – regardless of religion, nationality or immigration status.

In one week we will begin our 49th IDHA course, this time  in Kathmandu, followed by courses in Barcelona, Vienna, Cali, New York, and Amman. We will continue to cooperate with other academic and non-academic partners, and especially our family of alumni, to offer assistance to those who most need it. We look forward, as an independent Center and as an academic Institute, to preserving the rights of all, and the championing of a better world.

Kevin M. Cahill, M.D., President, CIHC; University Professor, IIHA
Brendan Cahill, Executive Director, IIHA
Larry Hollingworth, C.B.E., Humanitarian Programs Director, CIHC

Photo credit: Andrew Leger, IIHA Communications Intern

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Looking forward to 2017

Dear IIHA Community,

As we wrap up the first month of 2017, allow me to extend my warmest wishes to you for the year ahead. 2017 promises to be a year of great growth for the Institute of International Humanitarian Affairs and I wanted to reach out to you, to review where we are going, and how we intend to deepen our engagement with our community.

After 16 years of continued growth and nomadic movement through four different offices at Fordham’s Lincoln Center Campus in New York City, the IIHA will move to the Rose Hill campus. By being closer to Fordham’s academic community, we hope we will be able to provide new opportunities for our students. We will be located in Canisius Hall where additional space will allow us to bring in more dedicated research fellows and host exhibitions, lectures, and other extra-curricular events. This is the first of many changes that 2017 will bring.

After five years, we are saying goodbye to Dr. Alexander van Tulleken who is moving on from the Senior Fellow position to concentrate on his medical, media and humanitarian work throughout the world. This is no small change. Under his academic guidance, the undergraduate program flourished, and his insight and multidisciplinary and praxis-based approach informed our transformative approach to education. I know the decision to leave his undergraduate teaching and advising role with the Institute was not an easy one, but we are confident he will continue to be an active contributor to the Institute.

We are actively seeking his replacement and are fortunate to have welcomed two new members to the team. Ms. Angela Wells will serve as our the new IIHA Communications Officer. Ms. Wells, who had been working with Jesuit Refugee Service in East Africa, will direct our social media, websites, and communications initiatives. She looks forward to working with and being a resource for all of you. Giulio Coppi has become the first Humanitarian Innovation Fellow at the Institute. Mr. Coppi is the founder of High Tech Humanitarians, a project for humanitarian innovators supported by the Institute.

He is one of four core team of contingent faculty and research fellows teaching our undergraduate courses this semester, including:

  • Pat Foley, an applied anthropologist with 20 years of experience in emergencies, recovery and development;
  • Giulio Coppi, an expert on the use of Open Source technology and community-based approaches to humanitarian response;
  • Laura Perez, an internationally recognized expert on the protection of children in situations of armed conflict; and
  • Rene Desiderio, a technical expert in emergency and humanitarian response operations as well as topics ranging from population and development to international migration and gender.

We are additionally endeavoring to launch a new Master’s in Humanitarian Studies program, based on our New York campus. Paperwork for this initiative has been submitted to the New York State Department of Education and we are awaiting their approval. This program will allow us to extend our training to recent undergraduates and young professionals seeking to make their next step in their humanitarian careers.

Our Master’s in International Humanitarian Action (MIHA) program and short courses for humanitarian workers will also continue to thrive with courses around the world. This year we will host three diploma (IDHA) courses in Nepal, New York and Vienna, as well as specialized short courses in Barcelona, Amman and Vienna. We are particularly excited for the summer IDHA in New York, as this will be the 50th diploma course to date. We are proud to have reached this milestone and will commemorate it with memorable activities.

As the year progresses forward, we hope to be an intellectual catalyst of discussion, collaboration and action toward a more socially just world. Our door and ears are open and we look forward to hearing your thoughts on how we can better serve this community.

Warmest regards,

Brendan Cahill
Executive Director
Institute of International Humanitarian Affairs
Program Chair, Humanitarian Studies

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Practitioner Profile: Anthony Land, Ph.D. – IIHA Senior Fellow

Currently a Senior Fellow for the Institute of International Humanitarian Affairs (IIHA) at Fordham University, Anthony (Tony) Land, Ph.D. has served as a Tutor for the International Diploma in Humanitarian Assistance (IDHA) course since its beginning in 1997. Dr. Land grew up in Borehamwood, a small town just north of London. He left school early at the age of 16 when he began to work as a laboratory assistant in the chemical industry while continuing his studies part time. In 1970 Land received his Bachelor’s degree in Applied Chemistry from Brunel University and subsequently received his Master’s degree in the areas of Chemistry and Material Science.

Following his studies, Land realized that technology was not the area to which he wanted to dedicate his life. Unsure of his next move, he decided to travel overland from Europe to India and Bangladesh, making many stops along the way. It was during this period of exploration that he had his first experience working in the humanitarian field by volunteering with church-related, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in India. Leading on from this volunteering, he worked with Tearfund in Bangladesh developing the fair-trade export of handicraft items. From this job, he accepted a position with Tearfund as Field Director of ACROSS, a consortium of church-related aid organisations in, what was then, Southern Sudan.

At the time ACROSS had been subcontracted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to run refugee camps. It was this partnership that led to Land’s recruitment by the UNHCR. His work with UNHCR , mainly in field operation duties, took him to many parts of the world including Pakistan, Indonesia, and Malawi.  He also spent time with UNHCR in the Balkans, being instrumental in the establishment of the Sarajevo airlift before leading their office in Sarajevo. He then moved to Geneva to work in donor relations for UNHCR during a time when they was looking for people with field experience who could understand and communicate humanitarian operations and achievements. Land continued in donor relations for five years before being posted as Director of Operations in Kosovo and Head of Office in Vladikavkaz, North Caucasus. Returning to Geneva he worked as Deputy Head of Fundraising and then went on to become the UNHCR Head of Fundraising from the European Commission in Brussels before retiring in 2006.

Land lectured on the first IDHA course in 1997 and continued his involvement whenever possible. Following his retirement from UNHCR he became more involved with IIHA and has lectured and tutored on many courses. He now serves as a Senior Fellow with the Institute.

In a recent interview Dr Land responded to the following questions

What was your greatest accomplishment?

If I look back at one moment that stretched me and was a formative moment in my life, it would certainly be my time in Sarajevo during the Bosnian War. I was caught in the middle of – and living in – a besieged city, where I was desperately trying to feed 350,000 people. My only logistics routes were a tenuous airlift, supplemented with a tortuous truck supply route both of which were often interrupted by the war. All of this had to be managed through negotiations with the warring parties, Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. This is where I first worked with the now IIHA Humanitarian Programs Director, Larry Hollingworth, and Larry and I split the task of getting the convoys out of Sarajevo and across Serb territory into the Bosniak enclaves. This was accomplished by my conducting the negotiations across the front lines with Larry leading the convoys. While a convoy was in progress I was on 24-hour call to respond to the many problems Larry encountered.

What was your most difficult task?

My most difficult task was the one I got the least satisfaction from. It was my position in donor relations trying to meet the bureaucratic requirements of funding from the European Commission. The work was tedious, there were constant negotiations both externally with the Commission, and internally when there were difficulties getting information from the field with the necessary level of detail.

You mention that you have been lecturing on the IDHA course since IDHA 20. IDHA 48 was just held here in New York, and you were, again, an integral part of the course. Could you share some reflections about this latest course?

Every IDHA that I have worked on has been different. Each is a different environment. There are between 20 and 50 students on each IDHA and each course forms its own group identity. During the course we assign the students to syndicates. Each syndicate also forms its own identity. Some groups struggle more than others because they do not gel as easily different personalities giving rise to different dynamics. I can’t say that one course is better than the other but IDHA 48 has a unique identity.

While teaching, it is important to keep the purpose of the course intact while taking into consideration you are addressing a diverse range of individuals. If there are 50 students and on average each of them has two years of experience, that means you already have 100 years of experience within the student body. As a result, there is often a similar amount of experience collectively amongst the student body as in the faculty. This requires flexibility in how you teach to effectively bring out the wealth of experience in the students during the lectures.

What do you think the key challenges facing the humanitarian field today?

The humanitarian field faces many challenges and the tough part of this question is to identify priorities. The first key challenge is the possibility that you can work in an environment where only about half of the money appealed for is received. For example, this year (2016) humanitarians are appealing for about 20 billion dollars, the anticipated income is about 10 billion. This leads to credibility problems when nobody seems able to show that being fifty percent underfunded is directly leading to disaster and death. This was a problem I encountered in donor relations when I asked field teams to explain the impact of being underfunded. I could very rarely get a straight answer. One example that rose in 2014 was the impact of the underfunding of the World Food Programme’s (WFP) initiative to feed Syrian refugees in refugee camps. Some have suggested that this food shortage in the camps sparked the movement of refugees across Europe. Although others dispute this claim, this may be one case where a direct impact can at least be inferred. However, where it cannot be shown that underfunding causes direct human suffering, donors may draw one of two conclusions:

  • The money was not really needed, in which case the appeals lose their credibility, and
  • A large amount of funding included in the appeal is being provided from sources which are not effectively being tracked. Hence the deficit is significantly less than reported.

The second challenge is the continued growth of big international NGOs working in the humanitarian field with expensive overheads, international salaries, travel, and accommodation costs. The time has come when we need to train people who are living in disaster-prone areas to ensure the response can be carried out locally or at least regionally. When a disaster does happen, the funds can then go to organizations that have linguistic, cultural and economic roots on the ground, greatly reducing the need for the involvement of big foreign international NGOs. It is time to look for a different way respond to disasters and I believe this transition can be an important part of the answer. Unfortunately, the international NGOs have tremendous inertia just by their sheer size and influence on the donor community. They continue to grow and speak about growth and expansion as objectives. The transition to a more localized response is going to be difficult but it is the way ahead for the next 20 years.

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IDHA Alumni Report from the Field: Hungarian Baptist Aid conducts fact finding mission in Erbil, Iraq

HBAIDHungarian Baptist Aid (HBAID) arrived to Erbil to explore more on the current humanitarian and security situation as well as to meet with national and representatives of international humanitarian NGOs working in this region. The aim of this visit is to potentially provide assistance right there at the root of the problem. As known since the Mosul’s military offense has started, the number of civilian and military casualties is continually increasing. There is an urgent need for medical assistance and humanitarian support in this region. According to UNHCR data, since the Mosul offensive began, 2,935 families have been displaced. Up to 1 million people will be affected by the operation in Mosul, and will become IDPs. HBAID is looking into possible assistance programs in the medical field and in the IDP and refugee situation.

As a first step members of the HBAID delegation are in the region to conduct prior assessments in order to understand the situation on the ground better and to meet with officials and possible partner organizations. The aim of these meetings is to find out what help could be efficiently offered by HBAID in the near future.

Anna Szenczy (IDHA 45, MIHA) and Sandor Horvath (IDHA 47) were members of the HBAID delegation.

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Alumni Update: Andy McElroy (IDHA 16, IDHA Lecturer)

Andy McElroy’s (IDHA 16, IDHA Lecturer) latest article for the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), “Thailand’s ‘Madam Disaster champions risk reduction,” features disaster risk reduction journalist Ms. Darin Klong Ugkara’s message to move her media colleagues beyond “simply describing events and instead help their audiences better protect themselves from various hazards.”

 

 

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